I'm a bit unfamiliar with foul rules. Correct me if my assumption is wrong. So a team has to give a certain number of fouls up a half before they're 1 and 1?
Does that mean each point or free throw is 1 point?
1 and 1 means you're going to shoot a free throw and, if you make it, you're going to shoot another free throw.
In terms of being "in 1 and 1" that means that if you get a non shooting foul, instead of the other team just getting the ball, they get to shoot a 1 and 1. If you get enough fouls you move out of 1 and 1 and they just start shooting 2 free throws every time.
The idea is that you get a couple 'gimme' fouls to start with, up to 6. For your 7th the other team shoots 1 and 1s. This is called "bonus". For your 10th, they shoot 2 free throws every time. This is called "double bonus".
In the NBA, where you're expected to play more within the rules (except for travelling, which doesn't seem to exist anymore, but that's another rant) there is no "bonus". It goes directly into double bonus starting with the 5th foul or the second foul in the last two minutes of the period, if the team wasn't already in the bonus. source
This can play a big role in the end of the period. If you're down, it's much more dangerous to foul, as it's going to put your opponent further ahead. Or, if you're up, it's going to give your opponent a chance to catch up. Unfortunately, short of a time out, fouls are pretty much the only mechanism to stop the clock. So if the ball gets stolen and the other team is going to run it down the court for a layup, your only option might be to 'accidentally' foul him, say with a reach or a light bodily contact. This at least removes the guarantee of a layup, but puts you further into bonus or into double bonus so actual accidental fouls are penalized harder.