In addition to the previous answer a couple of other interesting examples spring to mind. These from Test matches:
The first abandoned test I can find was West Indies vs England, Sabina Park (1998). The match was called off after only 10 overs due to an unplayable pitch (Scorecard).
A similar occurrence in Antigua in 2009, where the game was called off after 10 deliveries. (Cricinfo report). This was due to the sandy condition of the recently relaid outfield being deemed dangerous to bowlers.
The second Test between England and West Indies at the Sir Vivian Richards stadium in Antigua has been abandoned after just ten deliveries, after the sand-based outfield was deemed a safety risk to the bowlers.
The test between England and Pakistan at the Oval in 2006 was abandoned when the Pakistan team refused to emerge from their dressing room after tea on the 4th day, feeling they had been unfairly docked 5 runs for ball-tampering. (Scorecard) The match was eventually awarded to England.