Over the last handful of years a great deal has changed in the analysis of likely outcomes in football. In no small part this has been influenced by approaches developed in American sports, hockey probably more than others.
Probably the best-known of the 'new' stats is Expected Goals (ExpG or xG). At its very simplest, ExpG tells us how likely a player or team is to score from a single shot. Suppose two teams from last weekend both had 5 shots on goal during a game, one team (A) scored 3 goals and the other (B) none. That suggests that shots on target are a poor predictor of scoring probability. However, if we know that team A's shots were all from inside the 6-yard box while B's were all from outside the penalty area, then we have a bit of context.
ExpG puts a quantitative quality score on each shot based on location and many other factors. As this is still a science in its infancy, there are many slight variations in the model that decides on the ExpG of a shot. That notwithstanding, if you know a team's average ExpG and average shot count per game then you can make a prediction of their likely scoring output.
This video by Dan Altman explains better than I.
One of the earliest mentions of ExpG was this blog post by Sam Green on the OptaPro blog.
A slightly later post introducing the concept is this one by Colin Trainor on StatsBomb.
ExpG is becoming more widely accepted with MLS probably leading the way, but UK newspapers and TV channels are starting to mention it.
Another is PDO -
The sum of a teams shooting percentage (goals/shots on target) and its save percentage (saves/shots on target against).
(From James Grayson's blogpost on the subject.)
I don't understand any of that so I won't even try to add anything useful.
A much simpler concept is Per90 -
Normalization for time, usually used in player stats. Instead of dividing a player’s rate stat by games or appearances, you take all the minutes played and divide them into 90 minute chunks. Then take THAT number and use it as you would games played.
(From StatsBomb's Stat Definitions page.)