This year's Super Bowl broke the tradition of using Roman numerals. According to this article the NFL postseason media guide says:
The Roman numerals were adopted to clarify any confusion that may occur because the NFL Championship Game — the Super Bowl — is played in the year following a chronologically recorded season.
But the article also points out:
But it really doesn't explain, though, why Roman numerals are used, not numbers.
In fact, for just one year, the NFL is not going use Roman numerals. Next year would have been Super Bowl L. The league reportedly went through 73 versions of a logo with the letter "L" and decided it didn't work.
The Olympics also uses Roman numerals—presumably because it connects the modern version the ancient tradition. After Super Bowl V, the numbering system was retroactively applied to I-IV, but I haven't been able to figure out why.