I like to have more speed when swimming as I feel this is safer due to being able to escape dangerous situations. Would webbed gloves provide this in a spear fishing or snorkeling environment?
Generally speaking, no. Spear fishing and snorkeling generally employ swim fins for propulsion because they occur mostly either underwater or when holding something in your hands. At slow speeds, the strength in your legs with swim fins far exceeds what you can generate with your arms, so the vast majority of the time you use your legs only for propulsion while snorkeling and/or spear fishing.
Even more importantly, your question seems to imply that you could escape some danger by outracing it. In any aquatic situation, this is extremely unlikely. Humans are very poorly adapted to functioning in the water and any serious threat won't be outrun, even by an Olympic swimmer. You would quickly exhaust yourself with your gloves and become helpless in very short order.