Watching the Olympics, I came across an athlete, Kylie Rae Dickson, representing Belarus. However, she was American and the commentator briefly touched on how she had no Belarus heritage. I did a quick Google search and found this on Dickson's Wikipedia article:
"She competed for Belarus at the 2015 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships, with club teammate Alaina Kwan. Neither she nor Kwan had familial ties to Belarus or had visited when they acquired Belarussian citizenship and competition rights."
How can an athlete with no ties to a country (say, Belarus) still compete for them?