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A couple of situations that call for minor penalties in the rulebook become penalty shots if they are committed when there is "insufficient playing time" to serve them (applies to regulation and overtime). For example, one situation is a defending player displacing the goal frame intentionally; from the 2017-2018 Rulebook, Rule 63.5, Penalty Shot:

If by reason of insufficient time in the regular playing time or by reason of penalties already imposed, the minor penalty assessed to a player for deliberately displacing his own goal post cannot be served in its entirety within the regular playing time of the game or at any time in overtime, a penalty shot shall be awarded against the offending team

Does this mean that 1:59 or less must be remaining in regulation for a minor penalty to become a penalty shot? Technically, the rule doesn't even mention two minutes; it mentions "insufficient playing time." Does this mean if two minutes remain exactly, the minor penalty can be served in its entirety?

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In the NHL, certain penalties become penalty shots if there is insufficient time remaining, but the vast majority do not. The only penalties that I know of which result in this rule are Delay of Game via intentional displacement of the goal posts and Deliberate Too Many Men, as seen in rule 74.4.

74.4 Deliberate Illegal Substitution

If by reason of insufficient playing time remaining, or by reason of penalties already imposed, a bench minor penalty is imposed for deliberate illegal substitution (too many men on the ice) which cannot be served in its entirety within the legal playing time, or at any time in overtime, a penalty shot shall be awarded against the offending team.

This rule means that if there is 1:59 or less remaining on the clock, it defaults to a Penalty Shot, but if it's 2:00 or greater, it's just a minor penalty. The reason the rule book does not specify 2:00 remaining is similar but subtle.

In the NHL, any given team cannot play with fewer than 3 skaters on the ice an a time. This means that if a team is already down 2 skaters, and they receive a 3rd penalty, that penalty time does not actually start until the 1st penalty expires. The player will still be placed in the box and the team will be allowed to continue with 3 players. If it's the case that the team is already down 2 players, and receives a penalty for Delay of Game - Displacing the Goal Posts such that the penalty time won't start until there is 1:59 left, then it's a penalty shot instead.

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