Reviewing bodies, in case of Spanish League, Spanish football federation’s (RFEF) compeetition committee and appeals committee, will only look at the particular instance leading to the sending off or the incident club is appealing against, and the club has to provide written report with video evidences to that particular incident. Consequences will only be overridden in case of obvious mistake.
From RFEF Disciplinary code:
Article 130. Review of arbitration decisions.(google translation)
2. The disciplinary consequences of such expulsion may be overridden by the disciplinary body only in the event of manifest material error.
(As OP was interested in incident involving Sergio Ramos and Ronaldo)
1.For incident involving Ramos ESPN: Madrid appealed the second yellow shown by referee Jose Luis Gonzalez Gonzalez, but the Spanish federation's competition committee said the video evidence presented by the club's legal team had failed to establish that the official had made a mistake. Adding, this appeal may be lodged against the Appeal Committee within a maximum period of ten working days.
2.For incident involving Ronaldo DailyMail: The Spanish football federation’s (RFEF) appeals committee “dismissed the appeal presented by Real Madrid”, the RFEF said in a statement.
While the RFEF compeetition committee stated Madrid have 10 days to lodge an appeal with its appeals committee, while adding in its report that the club attempted to get the offence downgraded from a push to a minor "disregard" for the referee.
The official match report sent to the RFEF from the Camp Nou included Ronaldo's push in the "other incidents" section.
Other incidents: (Player: Cristiano Ronaldo Dos Santos Aveiro) Once the red card was shown, the player pushed me slightly in a sign of disagreement.
The sole judge on the RFEF's Competition Committee, after reviewing Real Madrid's defense statements, first of all made clear that the referee was the only sportive authority during the match and his decisions were irrevocable.
The judge also considered that the player violated article 96 of the disciplinary code, which forbids pushing the referee and imposes bans ranging between 4-12 matches for that action.
The judge dismissed the argument that the shove had been an instinctive response from Ronaldo, as Real Madrid claimed, and instead called it an "unjustified and disproportionate reaction."
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