In November 2018 India played Australia. Under the Duckworth-Lewis method, India lost the match despite scoring more.
Is this first time a cricket team lost the match despite scoring more?
No, not by a long way.
In December 2014 Sri Lanka scored 242/8 against England's 236/5. However, because of rain delays, they had only 35 overs each, and England batting second achieved the par score with eight balls to spare, winning the match.
Even earlier, in February 2006, India scored 328 all out in 49.4 overs while Pakistan scored 311/7 in 47.0 overs when they were interrupted by rain and unable to complete the innings. The par score was set at 305, which had been easily beaten already, and Pakistan won.