Not really, no.
Law 3.3, Substitution procedure says
if a player who is to be replaced refuses to leave, play continues
indicating that the referee has no power to enforce a substitution, and further is required to ignore an unsuccessful attempt rather than wait for the conflict to be resolved.
Law 3.7, Extra persons on the field of play says
If a team official, substitute, substituted or sent off player or outside agent enters the field of play the referee must:
only stop play if there is interference with play
have the person removed when play stops
take appropriate disciplinary action
indicating that the team officials or bench are not permitted to try to enforce the substitution themselves by entering the field.
However, should the player leave of their own accord with permission of the referee, and somehow be restrained from re-entering it until the next stoppage of play, and the substitution is alerted before this time, and the substitute enters the field at halfway when permitted, according to the remainder of Law 3.3, then a substitution has technically occurred. Law 3.7 then applies to the substituted player themselves, barring them from returning to the game. For all practical purposes however, this procedure should not be relied upon.