what determines if a successful stolen base is against the catcher or pitcher? for instance, a ball thrown in the dirt after the runner breaks for the next base. This surely can not be held against the catcher? Or, the pitcher has a high leg kick giving the advantage to the runner and the catcher has no chance to throw out the runner?
If a runner attempts to steal a base, he will generally get credit for a stolen base unless the catcher doesn't attempt to throw him out (this is called defensive indifference). If a passed ball or wild pitch happens, generally they are credited with the stolen base if they made the steal attempt before the passed ball or wild pitch occurs. This is at the discretion of the official scorer.
Stolen bases are only officially credited to the stealing runner, not against either a pitcher or catcher. This is covered in 9.07.
Any record that is kept about the performance of the pitcher such as time to deliver would unoffical, and there's no guidance I'm aware of about apportioning the steal to either one.