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Which USAV Outdoor Volleyball Rules regulate the action of receiving a serve overhand with fingers? This is a contentious topic where I play.

I found a rule that allows double contact even when overhand with fingers on a hard-driven ball. This raises related questions: Is a fast serve considered to be a hard-driven ball? What is meant by 'defensive' below? If the serve is soft/slow, then is overhand contact of a served ball with fingers legal if the contact is clean? Is FIVB the same as USAV for this?

USAV Outdoor Rules as of June 2019: https://ncva.com/downloads/Referee%20Rule%20Book%20-%20Outdoor.pdf

9.2.2.4 Extended Contacts: In defensive action of a hard-driven ball, the ball contact can be extended momentarily even if an overhand finger action is used. USAV 9.2.2.4: Plays involving finger action require special attention. If the play is defensive and reactive in nature, as in the case of a hard-driven ball, momentarily held or double-contacted balls are not considered faults...If the player decides/intends to use finger setting action to contact an off-speed attack, the contact must be “clean.”

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USAV and FIVB rules are identical, now you have to keep in mind that there's a difference between defence from attack, and reception from serve. With this information the rules are clearer.

Which Beach-Volleyball Rules regulate the action of receiving a serve overhand with fingers?

There's no such thing as a hard driven serve in the FIVB rules, so it's just hard driven attack and it's based on those 4 criteria :

  1. Does the player have time to change his/ her technique?
  2. The time and distance between the attack and the defensive action
  3. Did the speed of the ball change due to a block or hitting the net?
  4. Is the action offensive or defensive in nature?

Simply stated, it really depends on the arbitration judgement, if the referee considers the defence to be reactionary, then the ball contact can be extended momentarily overhand with the fingers.

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