Golden point is the sports-independent way of referring to a point that immediately ends the match (or game). The term is usually used in sports where scoring is rare. In badminton and other racket sports, scoring (by winning a rally) is extremely common.
The term would be understood in a badminton context.
However, its actual usage is rare. For example, if you look at the google search results for "golden point" on badmintoncentral.com (probably the largest badminton forum), you'll see that there are only 5 search results, and only a single result which uses the term golden point for 29-all. It's probably being used more by people familiar with Rugby or Australian-rules football.
A much more common term would be gamepoint or matchpoint, for when a player has the opportunity to win the game or match. Both terms are very commonly used, in informal speech as well as the official vocabulary.
After all, in the official scoring system (and KO tournaments being quite common), it does not matter if you win 30-29 or 21-0; it's much more important if that wins you the game or the match.
Also, golden points are rare in badminton, at least with the 3x21_30 scoring system: Out of 144674 games in a database I had laying around (all the official games in leagues in NRW 2018/2019), only 32 – 0.02% or 1 in 4500 – ended in 30-29. In top-level sports the scores may be closer, but many players have played only a couple of games to 30-29 in their life, and some none at all.