Effectively, no - the game is over, penalties will not affect the result of the game.
The only slight caveat is that the NHL does enforce automatic suspensions for players with multiple game misconduct penalties; Rule 23.3:
In regular League games, any player who incurs a total of three (3) game misconduct penalties in the “General Category” and exclusive of other designated categories, shall be suspended for the next League game of his team. For each subsequent game misconduct penalty, the automatic suspension shall be increased by one game.
so this could conceivably have some influence on matches later in the season.