Just to make it clear, I do not mean the case when the game goes to extra time and then to penalties? So the highest number of penalties during an international final (club or national teams) during regular, stoppage and possibly extra time.
From what I recall the most penalties in one international game I saw was 5 penalties on the 4th of July, 1999.
It was on Argentina-Colombia match during Copa America.
The amazing thing was that Martin Palermo missed 3 penalties in this game and Colombia won 3-0 (one of them was penalty).
4 missed penalties and another successful one.
You can watch it here