What are spot fixing and match fixing in cricket and football, and what issues arise from such?
In simple words Match Fixing relates to the predetermined outcome of whole match while in Cricket spot fixing belongs to when you fix only some part of game like one over in balling like S.Sreesanth has commited recently or in batting for any over or some time at pitch .
Spot-fixing involves a player agreeing to perform to order by pre-arrangement. For example, a bowler might deliberately bowl consecutive wides in his second over or a batsman could make sure he does not reach double figures. More to find here
Other difference is here
Spot-fixing refers to illegal activity in a sport where a specific part of a game is fixed. Something as minor as timing a no ball or wide delivery in cricket is a perfect example of spot-fixing.
Match-fixing occurs as a match is played to a completely or partially pre-determined result, violating the rules of the game and often the law.
Match fixing is discipline agnostic, in the sense that it may occur in practically any sport. I will simply refer to match fixing in football, but it could easily translate to whatever sport, with some imagination.
Match fixing is the act of playing the game to a predetermined outcome. Note that this outcome could be anything from a particular player getting a yellow/red card, to an exact final result. Likewise it could also occur in the form of a particular player not playing in the game, for some reason. It occurs usually in connection with betting, where either a player willingly (or forcefully) change his/her performance during the game, in a way that affects the game in an "unexpected" way. In such a way an unlikely event, may come to happen, and thus people who bet on that unlikely event might get a premium payout.
Match fixing is against the rules of the game in most (if not all) sport, and very often against the law. I don't know about cricket but in football there have been a series of huge scandals in Europe, primarily in Italy where several players and referees were proved to have partaken in illegal conduct (gambling) and were banned. Likewise major clubs such as Juventus, Milan, Fiorentina and Lazio (among others) were severely penalized.
The wikipedia article for match fixing is actually pretty good, it's a good place to start reading up on the material.
Here's a particular incident referring to match fixing in cricket:
In 2000 the Delhi police intercepted a conversation between a blacklisted bookie and the South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje in which they learnt that Cronje accepted money to throw matches. The South African government refused to allow any of its players to face the Indian investigation unit, which opened up a can of worms. A court of inquiry was set up and Cronje admitted to throwing matches. He was immediately banned from all cricket. He also named Saleem Malik (Pakistan), Mohammed Azharuddin and Ajay Jadeja (India). Jadeja was banned for 4 years. They too were banned from all cricket. As a kingpin, Cronje exposed the dark side of betting, however with his untimely death in 2002 most of his sources also have escaped law enforcement agencies. Two South African cricketers, Herschelle Gibbs and Nicky Boje, are also wanted by the Delhi police for their role in the match fixing saga. A few years before in 1998, Australian players Mark Waugh and Shane Warne were fined for revealing information about the 'weather' to a bookmaker