Cricket balls are manufactured to conform to the specification laid down in Law 5 of the Laws of Cricket.
However, there are several different manufacturers of cricket ball, and normally the host country's cricket board will choose which manufacturers' cricket balls they will use.
For instance, Australia typically use a Kookaburra cricket ball (as do many other countries - Kookaburra claim "85% of Test Matches and One Day Internationals" use their Turf ball.)
At least anecdotally, each manufacturer's products are supposed to vary, so the home team, with its familiarity with the cricket balls of its chosen manufacturer, may have an advantage.
Which manufacturers' cricket balls are currently used at Test level, and by which teams? What are their key differences in behaviour? (Note that I am not specifically enquiring about differences between red and white cricket balls.)