In FIBA games, deliberately throwing the ball on the backboard without attempting a shot is equivalent to the player bouncing the ball on the floor.
It is then allowed only if you hadn't dribbled yet, in which case, you can dribble no more after you catch the ball again, but you can only pass or shoot. In all other circumstances (for example if you had already dribbled, or if you start dribbling after catching the ball) is a double dribble violation.
See art. 24 of FIBA's "Offical Basketball Rules 2017 - Official Interpretations - valid as of 1st February 2018".
Art. 24 Dribbling
24-1 Statement. If a player deliberately throws the
ball against a backboard (not attempting a legitimate shot for a field
goal) this is considered as if the player has bounced the ball on the
floor. If the player then touches the ball again before it has touched
(or been touched by) another player, this is considered as a dribble.
24-2 Example: A1 has not yet dribbled when A1 throws the ball against
the backboard and catches it again before another player has touched
Interpretation: After catching the ball A1 may shoot or pass
but may not begin a new dribble.
24-3 Example: After ending a dribble
either in the continuous motion or standing still, A1 throws the ball
against the backboard and catches or touches it again before it has
touched another player.
Interpretation: A1 has committed a double dribble violation.