I have found record of one sport that had an instant win move. The Mesoamerican ballgame, whose modern descendant is known as ulama, could be won with a single move: putting the ball through a ring.
This was said to be so difficult that it rarely occurred.
According to 16th century Aztec chronicler Motolinia, points were
gained if the ball hit the opposite end wall, while the decisive
victory was reserved for the team that put the ball through a ring.
However, placing the ball through the ring was a rare event—the rings
at Chichen Itza, for example, were set 6 meters off the playing
field—and most games were likely won on points.
Roger Highfield speculates in The Science of Harry Potter: How Magic Really Works that Quidditch may have been based on this Mesoamerican ballgame because of its magic/religious significance:
I suspect the answer to these questions may lie in Central America, Mesoamerica, where an extraordinary ball game--perhaps the most amazing of all time--contains intriguing echoes of Quidditch and its American variant, Quodpot. Indeed, I was surprised that this does not even merit a passing mention in Quidditch Through the Ages, marking a serious omission by Kennilworthy Whisp.
The people who took part in Nahualtlachtli, which means the magic ball game, were probably involved in the very first team sport. The game was played for thousands of years and probably started in Mexico in around 1500 B.C., with Mesoamerica's first great civilization, the Olmec, according to Manuel Aguilar of California State University, Los Angeles. By 1200 B.C. it was being played in Oaxaca, the Mexican highland and in the west of Mesoamerica, notable El Opeño, Michoacán. The location of its birthplace is no accident, for the balls were made of rubber, which originated in Mesoamerica.
Further down, he notes:
The ball game was indeed a cermonial activity that celebrated a magical battle for survival, where a human team was symbolically pitched against the gods and the awesome powers of the natural world. Each clash was seen as a struggle between the opposing forces of day and night, good and evil, and life and death, echoing how the best games of Quidditch put sly Slytherin against noble Gryffindor.
The game was richly textured with symbolism to reflect the creation story.
Wikipedia references Shelton, Anthony A. (2003). "The Aztec Theatre State and the Dramatization of War". In Tim Cornell and Thomas B. Allen (eds.). War and Games. New York: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-870-9.