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15

The individual Federations, in this case FINA, make all decisions of this nature, not the IOC. Only FINA could strip someone of a medal, following whatever rules they have for the particular situation. As noted, the appeal period has passed so this result will stand according to the rules that all FINA sanctioned events are run under. As part of the ...


7

The answer is simple, although you won't hear it in the media: it's financial. Imagine a league like the MLB suddenly decides to test every one of its players on a given day. Immediately they end up having to suspend 5-15% of the league including many of their star players. This hurts the credibility of the league, and the credibility of every team in the ...


7

Endurance and power in curling are important during the sweeping action, and I can guarantee that after a match the players are tired (especially the two players who sweep more). Here some evidence that talk about player training methods where you can find how physical training and endurance are important: 1 - 2 - 3 Furthermore, being able to maintain ...


7

Per this BBC article, the athletes will receive medals that were stripped from the banned competitors: Britain's 4x400m relay squad from the 2008 Beijing Games got their podium moment in front of a home crowd at the London Anniversary Games last month, finally becoming Olympic medallists after a nine-year delay. They are among dozens of ...


5

Absolutely. I boxed in the late 90s while in college. My dining hall was not feeding me enough so I was heavily smuggling food out for late night snacks. I found out that the easiest food to smuggle out and that would actually take decent were the bagels. And the only ones they had left at the end of the meals were the poppy seed ones. So I was eating 4-...


5

Some forms of cheating are basically impossible to detect. For example, blood doping (which is one of the things Lance Armstrong is accused of doing), where remove your own blood a few weeks to a month before a race, store it, and then transfuse into yourself during a race to help boost your red blood cell count. Since it is your own blood, there are no ...


5

Basically, cheaters have an advantage over the testers - they pioneer new techniques or develop drugs that are designed to minimize the risk of detection. Further, the cheaters usually operate under a veil of secrecy - they don't want their efforts to be detected. For this reason, blood and urine samples are sometimes stored for years to allow more advanced ...


4

It is not enough to test on the day of the competition, even if a 100% foolproof test for all illegal substances were possible. A doping athlete can use a drug during the training period leading up to competition, then stop use in time for any traces to disappear from the body before the test is taken. But the effects on the body (e.g. increased muscle mass)...


4

There are two good answers here that raise good points: There is no uniformity across sports because the incentives are different in different sports. Canadian Coder's answer about MLB is a good explanation of why MLB's testing structure is much different from that of, say, swimming or cycling. In the sports which do test extensively, as Fillet explains, in-...


4

The U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) administers the UFC's drug testing policy. They have a website at ufc.usada.org, and on this website you can read the 21-page policy (pdf), which took effect on July 1, 2015. Every UFC fighter is subject to unannounced, year-round drug testing by the USADA. The sanctions for testing positive is dependent on the ...


3

Here is a list of the starters (On the right side of this page). The following have proven history of doping: Alberto Contador Ryder Hesjedal Ivan Basso Alejandro Valverde Michele Scarponi Filippo Pozzato Rui Costa Damiano Caruso Daniele Bennati Giampaolo Caruso The Dutch public broadcasting station NOS stated on their website (in Dutch) a list of nine ...


3

This is rather speculative; we can't really give a reason why there are fewer cases in football compared to other sports, without being subjective and speculative. That aside a good starting place to look for information is the wikipedia article on the matter, there is also a listing of players involved in cases, some of which are better known than most ...


2

There is the national level and the international level. IAAF has forms by which athletes can send exemption forms. IAAF IAAF Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUE) Application Form here Cardiovascular evaluation of athletes - IAAF


2

The curling case is very puzzling, as the drug in question is meldonium, which basically allows slightly greater endurance by opening up blood flow and regulating energy in the cells. Even curlers are puzzled about it, as evidenced by this article. One of the possible side effects is tachycardia, which would be detrimental to the fine control needed for ...


1

According to the article "Non-Intentional Doping in Sports" (by Mauricio Yonamine, Paula Rodrigues Garcia, Regina Lúcia Moreau) which refers to several real cases of positive doping tests and several researces, it is really possible to recieve banned substances into your body unintentionally (e.g. non-smokers could passively inhale enough marijuana, or eat ...


1

The wordrecord news meantions that IPF to be the only Powerlifting federation that complies with WADA's anti-doping policies: "When a National Federation has received an Adverse Analytical Finding on one of its Athletes it shall report the following information to the IPF and WADA within fourteen (14) days of the process described in Article 7.1: the ...


1

As Martin indicated in comments: Approval status Meldonium, which is not approved by the FDA in the United States, is registered and prescribed in Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Moldova, Lithuania and Kyrgyzstan. This paragraph cites two resources: Mildronate (Meldonium) in professional sports – ...


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