There already is an answer which provides several occurrences of this happening. (And which probably is complete until the source of that answer was published, which is shortly before 2010 FIFA World Cup.)
Let us collect collaboratively in this community wiki answer other occurrences that we are able to find.
At 2018 FIFA World Cup, Saudi Arabia used all ...
Four teams (France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Greece) used their three goalkeepers:
In all, only four teams have ever used three goalkeepers in a single
World Cup tournament. That's out of 371 teams to have qualified for
the finals – surely time for Fifa to change the rules.
First to use a trio of keepers were France in 1978. The No1 was