I'm a USA Hockey official. In addition to the rule book the officials also receive a casebook (usually the same physical book) to help clarify the intent behind the rules. Let me quote one of the situations from the casebook on Cross-Checking
Two players are physically engaged in front of the goal and competing for body position. The defensive ...
It's hard to prove a negative, but neither the Laws, nor the Instructions to Technical Officials, nor the BWF umpire manuals mention any right of the umpire to refuse a challenge.
The only limitation on challenges follows from §5.8.5 ITTO:
(...) The player must clearly say ‘Challenge’ to the Umpire and/or
make a clear signal by raising the hand. Any such ...