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73

The answer to this is a little convoluted and the answer is just what is "believed" to have been the reason behind the scoring numbers, but since tennis is a game that dates back to the 19th century, it's tough to know for sure. Anyway, here goes... Think of a clock face that is divided up into quadrants - which would give you the 15, 30, 45, and 60 ...


63

There are a few fundamental considerations: Uncertainty is a part of the game. The referee and linesmen are the arbiters of the action. Instant replay would limit their authority. Football is global. Many places do not have access to the technology necessary to implement instant replay. Football is a fast-paced game with few opportunities for stoppage. ...


49

For the NCAA, it is scored as follows (from page 10 of the 2011 Official Basketball Statisticians’ Manual): A.R.15. Adams throws a pass to himself or herself off the backboard, and then shoots and makes the basket. Ruling: Credit Adams with a FGA and FGM, but no assist or rebound. For the NBA, according to this Q&A (from 2009) with Bernie Fryer (...


48

Wikipedia article on "offside" is very comprehensive and largely based on the official FIFA's Laws of the Game. From the article: what it is: Offside is a law in football which states that if a player is in an offside position when the ball is touched or played by a teammate, he may not become actively involved in the play. A player is in an offside ...


35

The best explanation I could find of this is from Wikipedia: The origins of the 15, 30, and 40 scores are believed to be medieval French. It is possible that a clock face was used on court, with a quarter move of the hand to indicate a score of 15, 30, and 45. When the hand moved to 60, the game was over. However, in order to ensure that the game could ...


33

This is required so that teams are able to change sides of the field for the same technical reasons why they change sides at half-time, e.g, equal field/weather conditions, wind direction, fan seating, etc. Note that now rules (Law 7 - The Duration of the Match - 2. Half-time interval) explicitly state that: Players are entitled to an interval at half-...


32

This is due to the advantage rule, From Laws of the Game - Law 5: The Referee - 3. Powers and Duties: The referee allows play to continue when an offence occurs and the non-offending team will benefit from the advantage and penalises the offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue at that time or within a few seconds. The referee allowed to ...


31

Yes, they can. Example: During the 2012 UEFA Champions League final, Manuel Neuer of Bayern Munich took a penalty against Chelsea, when the game went into penalties. Please refer this wikipedia link. Also, when a game is being decided by penalties, then all players must have taken one penalty each, before a player can take a second penalty. So, a goal ...


29

I found it! When the batting team requires only 1 run to win and batsman scores run(s) on No ball it does not count towards batsman's runs. So in the given case the batsman will remain on 98 and batting side will win the match. Real Case: In the 3rd match between Sri Lanka and India in Sri Lanka Triangular Series, 2010 (between Sri Lanka, India and New ...


29

The accepted answer is great but I might add that in kicks from the penalty mark to decide a winner, all eligible players need to have taken a kick before a player may take a second kick. This means that the goalkeeper not only can take a kick, but must take a kick before any of the other players take a second kick.


28

To answer your question(s), the rule is to discourage intentional fumbling. It was added following the 1978 season in which the famous "Holy Roller" play occurred: The rule was put in the rule book after the Raiders beat the Chargers on an intentional forward fumble in 1978. Once the season was over, the rule as you have quoted was put into effect. ...


27

This is mostly to encourage more at bats to end with a ball in play. Baseball is most exciting when a batter can put a ball in play. It also gives the batter a slight advantage in that he can continue to foul pitches that he cannot achieve solid contact with and "keep himself alive." This balances the pitcher's competitive advantage of knowing where the ball ...


26

It is much easier to make contact with a pitch on a bunt than with a regular swing. The foul out on a bunt rule basically exists to speed up play and prevent gamesmanship on the part of the batter. If the batter could always bunt on strike two then batters like the pitcher and other poor hitters would walk significantly more often because it is easier for ...


26

corsiKa touched on time, but I wanted to add what I think is the primary point. Perhaps not for FIFA, but personally. Soccer is a game of motion, timing, and momentum. It is not a game of plays like American football. Scoring and penalties especially are relatively uncommon, while throws and even free kicks and crosses are mostly taken pretty quickly ...


26

There is no limit to the number of red cards that a referee can give, though the game would be stopped as soon as there are less than 7 players of a team remaining legally on the pitch. As of Law 3 in the FIFA Law Book, there cannot be less than 7 players of a team, on the field during play. In effect, a maximum of 4 on-field players of the same team can be ...


25

This is actually a special rule case. Section 2 Intentional Grounding Item 3: Stopping Clock A player under center is permitted to stop the game clock legally to save time if, immediately upon receiving the snap, he begins a continuous throwing motion and throws the ball directly into the ground. So you may spike the ball to stop the clock if you ...


25

Yes, it is LEGAL to switch racket "handed-ness" during play. From the USTA web site: Q. I am a left-handed tennis player. During play, I have found that I can hit the tennis ball almost as well with my right hand as I do with my left. Do USTA rules forbid players to switch hands during play? A. No. You can play with either hand. In fact, three-...


25

FIFA's Law 5 from the Laws of the Game 2011-12 notes: Decisions of the referee The decisions of the referee regarding facts connected with play, including whether or not a goal is scored and the result of the match, are final. The referee may only change a decision on realising that it is incorrect or, at his discretion, on the advice of an ...


25

A tennis player is allowed to serve two times. If your first attempt (serve) results in a fault, the player is allowed a second attempt. When you commit a fault, in many, if not all competitions, you are discouraged to go and retrieve the ball that resulted in your fault. This would cluster the job of the the ball-boys on the court who's job is to collect ...


24

The exception about first base being unoccupied is to prevent a catcher from intentionally dropping a third strike and then getting a double-play. If there are two outs, that prevention isn't necessary. As for the reasoning behind the rule itself, I can't find a definitive resource, but speculation is that an out needs a successful defensive player and an ...


23

Zone defense is not explicitly prohibited, but there is a defensive three-second penalty occurring when a defender is inside the lane without guarding an offensive player. From the NBA Rules: Section VIII-Defensive Three-Second Rule a. The count starts when the offensive team is in control of the ball in the front-court. b. Any defensive player, ...


23

The number of laps are decided by taking a distance of 305 km and dividing it by the length of a lap (rounded up), which varies from racetrack to racetrack. (1) quoting the official regulations (from 2011): 5.3 The distance of all races, from the start signal referred to in Article 38.9 to the chequered flag, shall be equal to the least number of ...


22

That's a bonus marker. A team who commits 7 fouls gives the other team a bonus - which gives a free throw with every foul from that point on. The second B on the second image indicate that a team has reached 10 fouls (in HS and college this is the double bonus and means that you shoot 2 foul shots from there forward instead of 1 and 1)


22

Being a football player since very young (I'm from Argentina :) ) I just could explain my point of view. When you have a casual game without offside, ball movement in the field is very weird: there is not much strategy filling spaces in the middle, and it is very common to just put the ball as far as you can in the opponent field. This makes the game more ...


22

No goal. This is a basic rule of football: it's the position of the ball that matters, not the players. Specifically quoting from the Laws of the Game, Law 10 - The Method of Scoring (page 35): A goal is scored when the whole of the ball passes over the goal line, between the goalposts and under the crossbar (my emphasis). In your example, the whole ...


21

Technically the play cannot end with two runners on the same base. If two runners are occupying the same base, then the trailing runner is considered "In Jeopardy", or able to be tagged out, and must either retreat to the previous base or, if it is occupied, the leading runner must advance a base. However, if the trailing runner was forced to the base ...


21

Sorry, I don't have a reference for this, but we studied this in Game Theory: statistically matching the outcome of equal opponents. When you match any two opponents of absolutely equal skill, the contest should end a stalemate (i.e. the rules should not give advantage to one over the other). In baseball, if a hypothetically "perfect" pitcher could throw ...


21

Referees and FIFA are now trying to prevent diving with more frequent punishments as part of their ongoing target to stop all kinds of simulation in football. The game's rules now state that: "Any simulating action anywhere on the field, which is intended to deceive the referee, must be sanctioned as unsporting behaviour" which is misconduct ...


21

Law 19.7 in the MCC Laws of Cricket states that, If the boundary results from an overthrow or from the wilful act of a fielder the runs scored shall be (i) any runs for penalties awarded to either side AND (ii) the allowance for the boundary AND (iii) the runs completed by the batsmen, together with the run in progress if they had already ...


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