The line of scrimmage is irrelevant, for the most part, in this question. The thing that is relevant is whether the pass went forwards from the quarterback's location, or backwards.
A forward pass that hits the ground is an incomplete pass, which ends the play and no gain or loss is recorded - the next down will be at the same location as the prior down.
If a batter-runner is incapacitated during a home run (or any other play where he is entitled to a particular base, such as a walk, a ground rule double, or a ball thrown into the dugout), then his team may use a substitute runner (who then takes his place in the batting order and on the field, unless further replaced). See the MLB Official Baseball rules, ...
Making a forearm pass without your hands connected is not of itself a fault. Quoting from the official rules, Section 9.3 "Faults in playing the ball":
9.3.3 CATCH: the ball is caught and/or thrown; it does not rebound from the hit.
9.3.4 DOUBLE CONTACT: a player hits the ball twice in succession or the ball contacts various parts of his/her body ...
If a match is tied at the end of normal time, Law 10 allows three methods to determine the outcome of the match:
When competition rules require a winning team after a drawn match or home-and-away tie, the only permitted procedures to determine the winning team are:
away goals rule
two equal periods of extra time not exceeding 15 minutes each
kicks from the ...
"There is no time limit for the review process as accuracy is more important than speed" -IFAB
Any match changing decisions/incidents reviewable by VAR can be reviewed even after the restart.
So because the handball happened prior to the referee blowing for full-time it's allowed for VAR to check the incident.
This is called a short run. Quoting from Law 18:
18.3 Short runs
18.3.1 A run is short if a batsman fails to make good his/her ground in turning for a further run.
18.3.2 Although a short run shortens the succeeding one, the latter if completed shall not be regarded as short. A striker setting off for the first run from in front of the popping crease may ...
Quoting from Law 5, The Bat:
5.7 Bat size limits
5.7.1 The overall length of the bat, when the lower portion of the handle is inserted, shall not be more than 38 in/96.52 cm.
5.7.2 The blade of the bat shall not exceed the following dimensions:
Width: 4.25in / 10.8 cm
Depth: 2.64in / 6.7 cm
Edges: 1.56in / 4.0cm.
Furthermore, it should also be able to pass ...
You missed a step in your analysis.
"...White, upon completion of a dribble, gathered the ball on his left foot, establishing his left foot as his pivot foot..."
Gather step is step 0 on LF.
He places right foot (RF) down! This is step 1! At this stage, either foot can be the pivot.
He lifts RF -> hence establishes LF as pivot.
He then steps ...
Law 5 answers this directly.
Section 2, Decisions of the Referee provides that
The referee may not change a restart decision on realising that it is incorrect or on the advice of another match official if play has restarted or the referee has signalled the end of the first or second half (including extra time) and left the field of play or abandoned the ...
Because your premise is wrong.
Women playing shorter matches in tennis isn't for "marketability", it's an excuse that's been used for many years to pay less money to women. Women are just as capable of playing a high-quality 5 set match as men are, suggesting that other sports should be crippled because of an outdated notion that women aren't "...