The more known and less atypical example of this would be the United Kingdom and Ireland, who divide - or merge in the case of the Irish rugby team - countries in different ways.
There is a much more unorthodox example in Lacrosse, where the Iroquois nationals take part in the World championship and consistently ranks among the top 5 teams in the world.
Does any other sport feature unrecognized nations, autonomous regions, single states/regions/lands out of a "composite" country, unions of multiple countries and/or regions, ...?
Please focus mainly on major tournaments hosted by international federations, as I am aware of teams such as the Catalonian or Basque national teams, to draw an example from football, or the British and Irish lions in rugby, playing in friendly competitions and organizations other than the primary federation allowing such teams to participate. Although if you are aware of these and want to include them in your answer, I would find it just as interesting.