A dynasty in sports is a team that excels among their division, league, and/or sport over an extended period of time (multiple seasons for example). Dynasties are usually realized after the fact...or during the fact after an already established period of dominance.
The NHL recognizes several dynasties, the most recent being the Edmonton Oilers, who won five championships in seven seasons during 1984-1990.
The closest comparison, as recognized by the NHL, to the 2010-2013 Chicago Blackhawks would be the 1949-1955 Detroit Red Wings, who won four championships in six seasons (and two in the first four seasons, like the 2010-2013 Blackhawks), and the 1961-1964 Toronto Maple Leafs, who won three consecutive championships.
Other recognized dynasties in North American sports:
- MLB - New York Yankees (1996-2003): seven division titles, six AL pennants, and four World Series championships (1996, 1998, 1999, 2000) in eight seasons
- NBA - Chicago Bulls (1991-1998): six championships in eight seasons
- NFL - New England Patriots (2001-2012): three Super Bowls in four seasons (2001, 2003, 2004), five conference championships in eleven seasons (2001, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2011), and ten division titles in twelve seasons.